If you need to configure ADFS v. 2.0 for use in Claims-based authentication scenarios, interestingly enough, ADFS v. 2.0 DOES NOT come pre-installed with Windows Server 2008 R2–even after the release of SP1. Therefore, you will not be able to install ADFS as part of the Server Roles that come with Server Manager.  Instead, you will have to separately download the release of ADFS v. 2.0 and install and configure it separately.
You can download the release of ADFS v. 2.0 from here: http://www.microsoft.com/download/en/details.aspx?id=10909
There is also an update rollup for ADFS v. 2.0 available which can be downloaded from here: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2607496

In addition, this is an excellent article on configuring ADFS v. 2.0: http://www.sysadminsblog.com/microsoft/installing-and-configuring-adfs-2-0/

and http://www.theidentityguy.com/articles/tag/adfs-v2

example of implementation with a cloud service: http://support.druva.com/entries/21437659-How-to-install-and-Configure-Active-Directory-Federation-Services-for-Druva-inSync-Cloud-SAML-integr

ADFS design and deployment:

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd391937(v=ws.10).aspx

http://blogs.technet.com/b/askds/archive/2012/01/05/understanding-the-ad-fs-2-0-proxy.aspx

http://blogs.technet.com/b/adfs_documentation/

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/adfs2-step-by-step-guides(v=ws.10).aspx

Planning Federation Server Proxy Placement:     http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd807130%28WS.10%29.aspx

Certificate Requirements for Federation Server Proxies:       http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd807054%28WS.10%29.aspx

AD FS 2.0: How to Replace the SSL, Service Communications, Token-Signing, and Token-Decrypting Certificates:      http://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/2554.aspx

Troubleshooting federation server proxy problems with AD FS 2.0:       http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/adfs2-troubleshooting-federation-server-proxy-problems%28WS.10%29.aspx

AD FS 2.0: Guidance for Selecting and Utilizing a Federation Service Name:      http://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/4177.aspx

AD FS 2.0 Proxy Management:      http://blogs.msdn.com/b/card/archive/2010/06/02/ad-fs-2-0-proxy-management.aspx

AD FS 2.0 Cmdlets in Windows PowerShell:      http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee892329.aspx

Other web resources about ADFS:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_Directory_Federation_Services

http://www.overthecloud.fr/?tag=adfs

http://www.cerberis.com/produit/direct-control-pour-adfs

http://www.centrify.com/directcontrol/adfs.asp

www.tdeig.ch/windows/pellarin_M2.pdf

A definition in French:

“Les services ADFS sont des services fédérées de gestion des identités (SSO, Single sign-On). A.D.F.Sidentifie, authentifie, et autorise lesutilisateurs à accéder à des extranets, améliore le déploiement AD(Active Directory) sur troispoints :

  • Extranet B2C
  • Fédérations interentreprises (multi-forêts)
  • Fédérations Internet B2B

La fédération des identités permet à deux entreprises et ce de manière sécurisée de partager les informations d’identité d’Active Directory d’un utilisateur, créer une meilleure efficacité opérationnelle. AFDS permet une gestion de fédération par les jetons de sécurité signés via la distribution de clés basés sur les certificats, la définition des types de jeton/claim et de l’espace de noms partagés pour les royaumes de sécurité fédérés. “