An introduction to claims:

https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff359101.aspx

To test ADFS, create your own test web app:

http://blogs.msdn.com/b/alextch/archive/2011/06/27/building-a-test-claims-aware-asp-net-application-and-integrating-it-with-adfs-2-0-security-token-service-sts.aspx

http://syfuhs.net/2010/08/02/making-an-asp-net-website-claims-aware-with-the-windows-identity-foundation/

http://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/3665.windows-identity-foundation-wif-content-map.aspx